Catalunya-chT

  Spain 1994
Date Players Type Elo Average Games Rounds
1994 236 Team 816 236 9

  Name ELO Points
  IM Granados Gomez, Manuel 2395 6.0
  IM Lacasa Diaz, Jose Antonio 2335 6.0
  FM Pablo Marin, Alejandro 2455 5.5
  GM De la Riva Aguado, Oscar 2490 5.0
  FM Baron Isanta, Jose Maria 2370 5.0
  IM Beltran Rueda, Santiago 2330 5.0
  GM Narciso Dublan, Marc 2435 4.5
  Gil Gonzales, Jose Manuel 2425 4.5
  Glimbrant, Torbjorn 2370 4.5
  FM Mateu Palau, Xavier 2405 4.0
  IM Jose Abril, Ramon 2370 4.0
  Maroto Borras, Josep Lluis 2300 4.0
  IM Moreno Ruiz, Javier 2335 3.5
  Bravo Barranco, Narciso 2315 3.5
  IM Gonzalez Velez, Fermin 2415 3.0
  IM Rahal, Michael A 2400 3.0
  FM Cuadras Avellana, Jorge 2310 3.0
  FM Ubach Miralda, Marcelo 2300 3.0
  Paredes Prat, Josep 2245 3.0
  GM Comas Fabrego, Lluis 2475 2.5
  Moran Llera, Jose Angel 2415 2.5
  IM Torrecillas Martinez, Antonio 2385 2.5
  Estrella Vidiella, Jordi 2380 2.5
  Hidalgo Mena, Andres 2295 2.5
  Castelltort Fernandez, Antonio 2290 2.5
  Yepes Martinez, Eduard 2275 2.5
  Leiro Giralt, Daniel 2250 2.5
  CM Fernandez Diaz Mascort, Miguel 2230 2.5
  FM Arias Boo, Guillermo 2.5
  GM Sorin, Ariel 2470 2.0
  IM Jerez Perez, Alfonso 2395 2.0
  IM Bofill Mas, Alejandro 2390 2.0
  IM Pomes Marcet, Juan 2390 2.0
  IM Hernando Rodrigo, Jose Maria 2325 2.0
  FM Ayas Fernandez, Antonio 2310 2.0
  Ferrer Duran, Martin 2285 2.0
  Pujol Sans, Manuel 2275 2.0
  Raurell Bernada, Jacinto 2270 2.0
  Fluvia Frigola, Joan 2265 2.0
  FM Rosich Valles, Alfredo 2230 2.0
  Crespo Revilla, Josep Ma 2220 2.0
  Tomas Batet, Joan 2145 2.0
  CM Llopis de Aysa, Manuel 2000 2.0
  Serrate Carrasco, Antoni 2.0
  Travesset Ribera, Daniel 2.0
  Jurado Martinez, J. 2.0
  Martinez, Sergio 2.0
  FM Simonet, Marc 2.0
  Clotet Torrelles, Ramon 2.0
  Guerrero Sanmarti, Richard 2.0
  Ponce Garcia, Joan 2.0
  IM Vidarte Morales, Arturo 2380 1.5
  FM Garcia Paolicchi, Raul 2195 1.5
  Escobar Torres, Antonio 2150 1.5
  Garreta Martinez, Albert 1.5
  GM Magem Badals, Jordi 2505 1.0
  GM Rodriguez Vargas, Orestes 2440 1.0
  IM Martin Gonzalez, Angel 2420 1.0
  IM Vehi Bach, Victor Manuel 2420 1.0
  IM Mellado Trivino, Juan 2395 1.0
  FM Bosque Ortega, Xavier 2380 1.0
  GM Oms Pallisse, Josep 2335 1.0
  FM Aranda Gonzalez, Jose 2325 1.0
  Buxade Roca, Guillermo 2270 1.0
  Bordell Rosell, Roman 2260 1.0
  Garrido Fernandez, Daniel 2255 1.0
  De la Riva Aguado, Jorge 2250 1.0
  Namay Caceres, Santos 2230 1.0
  Bosch Porta, David 2210 1.0
  Pizarro Segura, Eduardo 2210 1.0
  Julbe Canet, Josep 2120 1.0
  Rodriguez Melgar, Josep M 2025 1.0
  Sole Fabregat, Xavier 1.0
  Garcia Garcia, Manel 1.0
  IM Baches Garcia, Guillermo 1.0
  FM Artigas Isart, Miguel 1.0
  Vazquez Moreno, Josep M 1.0
  Gardela Batlle, Jordi 1.0
  Alcala Valiente, Joan Carles 1.0
  Girbes Pech, Rafael 1.0
  Gutierrez Clares, Joaquim 1.0
  Pons Gil, Antoni 1.0
  Melchor Munoz, Alejandro 1.0
  Mateu Cama, Jordi 1.0
  Monterde Monterde, Ricardo 1.0
  Vazquez, Julio 1.0
  Molina Mansilla, Ricardo 1.0
  Arnau Moliner, S. 1.0
  IM Perpinya Rofes, Lluis Maria 1.0
  Nogareda Estivil, Arnau 1.0
  Pascual Iglesias, Ferran 1.0
  Marques Soriano, Valentin 1.0
  Pous Garriga, Antoni 1.0
  Lopez Manzano, Antoni 1.0
  Lerch Gallemi, Jose Maria 1.0
  Rue Bullons, Josep Maria 1.0
  Marchador Villalba, Jordi 1.0
  Pazo Coustie, Roberto 1.0
  Marches Rios, Joan Manuel 1.0
  Cid, E. 1.0
  Layola Barrionuevo, Oriol 1.0
  FM Ruiz Mata, Oscar 1.0
  Carrasco Bravo, Daniel 1.0
  Quesada Fernandez, Jose Miguel 1.0
  Sanglas Clariana, Josep 1.0
  Fabregas Fernandez, Bernat 1.0
  Codina, Feixes Josep 1.0
  Garriga Sole, Pere 1.0
  Anglada Bigorda, Josep 1.0
  Tardio Fran, Emilio 1.0
  Comallonga Fernandez, Josep 1.0
  Alcolea Parra, Antoni 1.0
  Casas Douton, Domenech 1.0
  Vicente Haro, Gabriel Maro 1.0
  Villuela Arrollo, Robert 1.0
  FM Duran Albareda, Xavier 1.0
  Martin Garcia, Carlos 1.0
  Alonso Jimenez, Joan 1.0
  Allmirall, V. 1.0
  Batalla Batalla, Josep 1.0
  Burgos Garbin, Francesco 1.0
  Gonzalez Lopez, Antoni 1.0
  Grau Brumos, Isidre 1.0
  Bohigas Santasusagna, Lluis 1.0
  Rojano Cano, Francisco Jose 1.0
  Rafols Albet, Josep 1.0
  Bautista Sanchez, Joan 1.0
  Tebar Moreno, Juan Carlos 1.0
  Joanpera Morales, Antonio 1.0
  Busquets Prat, Rafael 1.0
  Rousse Mayol, Ricard 1.0
  IM Gual Pascual, Antonio 2370 0.5
  Ledo Garcia, JB. 2220 0.5
  Van Eijkeren, 2000 0.5
  Carol Querol, Santiago 0.5
  Rechi Perez, Francesco 0.5
  Ibanez Terradellas, Eduardo 0.5
  Fernandez Menendez, Ernesto 0.5
  Dominguez Gonzalez, Isaac 0.5
  Arnillas Moles, Josep 0.5
  Fraga Marti, Antoni 0.5
  GM Campos Moreno, Javier B 2445 0.0
  Ochoa de Echaguen, F Javier 2430 0.0
  Sanz Alonso, Francisco Javier 2420 0.0
  FM Pares Vives, Natalia 2375 0.0
  Viladiu Martinez, Josep 2325 0.0
  Toledano Luna, Pedro 2325 0.0
  FM Gonzalez Maza, Rafael 2310 0.0
  Noria Silvestre, Joaquin 2305 0.0
  Albero Figueras, Emilio 2225 0.0
  Gabarro Sole, Ramon 2205 0.0
  Bernat Capdevila, Ernest 2160 0.0
  Castelltort Fernandez, Jordi 2150 0.0
  WFM Vilar Lopez, Monica 2145 0.0
  Vera, G. 2130 0.0
  Martin Allende, Jorge 2115 0.0
  Carrey Abellan, Enric 2065 0.0
  Llasera Brufau, Joan 2050 0.0
  Puignou, T. 2000 0.0
  IM Fluvia Poyatos, Joan 2000 0.0
  Sanpera Bonet, Juan Carlos 0.0
  Serrano Pertinez, Miguel 0.0
  Fons Montesinos, Joaquin 0.0
  Llonch Mur, Jordi 0.0
  Parals Marce, Luis 0.0
  CM Nunez Lucero, Francisco 0.0
  Yuste Fornell, Ramon 0.0
  Rechi Perez, Jesus 0.0
  Ortiz Lafont, Jose 0.0
  Real Masdeu, Albert 0.0
  Pardo Vallbuena, Jordi 0.0
  Otero Velasco, Federico 0.0
  Santamaria Mas, Vicente 0.0
  Tejedor Cros, Andres 0.0
  FM Marcet Bisbale, Antonio 0.0
  Pros Heras, Jordi 0.0
  Borras Duran, Pere 0.0
  Gomez Olivares, Alejandro 0.0
  Vall de Vilaramo, Jordi 0.0
  Sirvent Aguirre, Didac 0.0
  Jimenez, 0.0
  Fortes Gil, Josep Maria 0.0
  Toribio Martinez, Pere 0.0
  Olle Gonzalez, Joan Miquel 0.0
  Masachs Vendrell, Francesco 0.0
  Colom Casasayas, Oscar 0.0
  Chalmeta Torredemer, Enric 0.0
  Marti Manzano, JJ. 0.0
  Casademunt Pina, Antoni 0.0
  Cuadras Salleres, Jordi 0.0
  Eroles Saez, Pedro 0.0
  Fernandez Muixi, Francesco 0.0
  Alsina Franco, Sergio 0.0
  Fernandez Martin, Luis 0.0
  Belles Bulta, Josep 0.0
  Farre Liarte, F. 0.0
  Duran Montero, Manuel 0.0
  Carraminana Puig, Jordi 0.0
  Atserias, J. 0.0
  Pages Rafart, Jordi 0.0
  Teixidor Codinach, Francesco 0.0
  Roche Erill, Felix 0.0
  Ayala Abenza, Jose Luis 0.0
  Balaguer, A. 0.0
  Bartroli Munoz, Xavier 0.0
  Moreno Culebras, Rafael 0.0
  Gallardo Munoz, David 0.0
  Sanchez, 0.0
  Lara Rodriguez, Manuel 0.0
  Mojica Martinez, Jesus A 0.0
  Fibla Reverter, Joan Francesco 0.0
  Aalbersberg Kroon, Pedro 0.0
  Arias Robles, Pere 0.0
  Mont, Alfred 0.0
  Rius Marse, Josep 0.0
  Malsch, Ulrich 0.0
  Marsal, Valles Marc 0.0
  Blasco Martinez, Emilio 0.0
  Navarro, 0.0
  Herms Agullo, Jordi 0.0
  Miralles Brugues, Jordi 0.0
  WFM Alfonso Nogue, Beatriz 0.0
  Castells Prat, Pere 0.0
  Sadabell del Hoyo, Cesar 0.0
  Picatoste Verdejo, Sergio 0.0
  Delgado Vallejo, Francesco 0.0
  Comas Andreu, Jordi 0.0
  Mateu Palau, Enrique 0.0
  Fravesset, D. 0.0
  Heredia Tarrats, Amadeu 0.0
  Gironella Perello, Lluis 0.0
  Lazaro Porta, Angel 0.0
  Pablo Cabre, Enric 0.0
  Marza Vendrell, Conrado 0.0
  Herreros Fernandez, Miguel 0.0
  Ortega, Jose Ignacio 0.0
  Name ELO Points
  IM Granados Gomez, Manuel 2395 6.0
  IM Lacasa Diaz, Jose Antonio 2335 6.0
  FM Pablo Marin, Alejandro 2455 5.5
  GM De la Riva Aguado, Oscar 2490 5.0
  FM Baron Isanta, Jose Maria 2370 5.0
  IM Beltran Rueda, Santiago 2330 5.0
  GM Narciso Dublan, Marc 2435 4.5
  Gil Gonzales, Jose Manuel 2425 4.5
  Glimbrant, Torbjorn 2370 4.5
  FM Mateu Palau, Xavier 2405 4.0
  IM Jose Abril, Ramon 2370 4.0
  Maroto Borras, Josep Lluis 2300 4.0
  IM Moreno Ruiz, Javier 2335 3.5
  Bravo Barranco, Narciso 2315 3.5
  IM Gonzalez Velez, Fermin 2415 3.0
  IM Rahal, Michael A 2400 3.0
  FM Cuadras Avellana, Jorge 2310 3.0
  FM Ubach Miralda, Marcelo 2300 3.0
  Paredes Prat, Josep 2245 3.0
  GM Comas Fabrego, Lluis 2475 2.5
    Show full players list    


Catalunya-chT Games

White Black Result Round Date Opening View
Alcala Valiente, J Ayala Abenza, J 1-0 ? 1994 D55 Queen's Gambit Declined, 6.Nf3  
Allmirall, V Vilar Lopez, M 1-0 ? 1994 B12 Caro-Kann defence  
Alonso Jimenez, J Garriga Sole, P 1-0 ? 1994 A01 Nimzovich-Larsen attack  
Anglada Bigorda, J Roche Erill, F 1-0 ? 1994 A48 King's Indian, East Indian defence  
Aranda Gonzalez, J Teixidor Codinach, F 1-0 ? 1994 C02 French, advance variation  
Arias Boo, G Ayas Fernandez, A 0-1 ? 1994 B33 Sicilian defence  
Arias Boo, G Glimbrant, T 1-0 ? 1994 C18 French, Winawer, advance variation  
Arias Boo, G Vidarte Morales, A ½-½ ? 1994 B27 Sicilian defence  
Atserias, J Glimbrant, T 0-1 ? 1994 E24 Nimzo-Indian, Saemisch variation  
Ayas Fernandez, A Cuadras Avellana, J 0-1 ? 1994 B89 Sicilian, Sozin, 7.Be3  
Ayas Fernandez, A Pages Rafart, J 1-0 ? 1994 B86 Sicilian, Sozin attack  
Balaguer, A Maroto Borras, J 0-1 ? 1994 C01 French, exchange variation  
Baron Isanta, J Moreno Ruiz, J 1-0 ? 1994 C41 Philidor's defence  
Baron Isanta, J Narciso Dublan, M 0-1 ? 1994 B00 King's pawn opening  
Baron Isanta, J Paredes Prat, J 1-0 ? 1994 B22 Sicilian, Alapin's variation (2.c3)  
Baron Isanta, J Rahal, M 0-1 ? 1994 C06 French, Tarrasch, closed variation, main line  
Bartroli Munoz, X Quesada Fernandez, J 0-1 ? 1994 B01 Scandinavian (centre counter) defence  
Batalla Batalla, J Lara Rodriguez, M 1-0 ? 1994 B16 Caro-Kann, Bronstein-Larsen variation  
Bautista Sanchez, J Rosich Valles, A 1-0 ? 1994 A11 English, Caro-Kann defensive system  
Beltran Rueda, S Carol Querol, S 1-0 ? 1994 A25 English, Sicilian reversed  
Beltran Rueda, S Crespo Revilla, J 1-0 ? 1994 B31 Sicilian, Nimzovich-Rossolimo attack (with ...g6, without ...d6)  
Beltran Rueda, S Fernandez Diaz Mascort, M ½-½ ? 1994 C11 French defence  
Beltran Rueda, S Torrecillas Martinez, A 0-1 ? 1994 B02 Alekhine's defence  
Bofill Mas, A Sanchez, 1-0 ? 1994 A36 English, symmetrical variation  
Bohigas Santasusagna, L Ayas Fernandez, A 1-0 ? 1994 B22 Sicilian, Alapin's variation (2.c3)  
Bordell Rosell, R Ubach Miralda, M 1-0 ? 1994 E73 King's Indian, 5.Be2  
Bosch Porta, D Vidarte Morales, A 1-0 ? 1994 B84 Sicilian, Scheveningen (Paulsen), classical variation  
Bravo Barranco, N Hernando Rodrigo, J 1-0 ? 1994 C07 French, Tarrasch, open variation  
Bravo Barranco, N Lacasa Diaz, J ½-½ ? 1994 B44 Sicilian defence  
Bravo Barranco, N Ledo Garcia, J 1-0 ? 1994 B44 Sicilian defence  
Burgos Garbin, F Gallardo Munoz, D 1-0 ? 1994 B22 Sicilian, Alapin's variation (2.c3)  
Busquets Prat, R Torrecillas Martinez, A 1-0 ? 1994 B72 Sicilian, dragon, 6.Be3  
Buxade Roca, G Moreno Culebras, R 1-0 ? 1994 B40 Sicilian defence  
Campos Moreno, J Rodriguez Vargas, O 0-1 ? 1994 D43 Queen's Gambit Declined semi-Slav  
Carraminana Puig, J Fabregas Fernandez, B 0-1 ? 1994 A25 English, Sicilian reversed  
Carrasco Bravo, D Duran Montero, M 1-0 ? 1994 A80 Dutch  
Casademunt Pina, A Vicente Haro, G 0-1 ? 1994 E70 King's Indian, 4.e4  
Castelltort Fernandez, A De la Riva Aguado, O 0-1 ? 1994 B47 Sicilian, Taimanov (Bastrikov) variation  
Castelltort Fernandez, A Escobar Torres, A ½-½ ? 1994 B01 Scandinavian (centre counter) defence  
Castelltort Fernandez, A Ledo Garcia, J 1-0 ? 1994 B45 Sicilian, Taimanov variation  
Castelltort Fernandez, A Marti Manzano, J 1-0 ? 1994 C01 French, exchange variation  
Castelltort Fernandez, A Pablo Marin, A 0-1 ? 1994 B87 Sicilian, Sozin with ...a6 and ...b5  
Clotet Torrelles, R Chalmeta Torredemer, E 1-0 ? 1994 D90 Gruenfeld, Three knights variation  
Codina, F Masachs Vendrell, F 1-0 ? 1994 D85 Gruenfeld, exchange variation  
Colom Casasayas, O Jurado Martinez, J 0-1 ? 1994 A84 Dutch defence  
Comas Fabrego, L Gual Pascual, A ½-½ ? 1994 D15 Queen's Gambit Declined Slav, 4.Nc3  
Crespo Revilla, J Jerez Perez, A ½-½ ? 1994 B00 King's pawn opening  
Crespo Revilla, J Maroto Borras, J ½-½ ? 1994 C19 French, Winawer, advance, 6...Ne7  
Cuadras Avellana, J Bosch Porta, D 1-0 ? 1994 C95 Ruy Lopez, closed, Breyer, 10.d4  
Cuadras Avellana, J De la Riva Aguado, J 0-1 ? 1994 A21 English opening  
Cuadras Avellana, J De la Riva Aguado, O 0-1 ? 1994 B49 Sicilian, Taimanov variation  
Cuadras Salleres, J Baron Isanta, J 0-1 ? 1994 B22 Sicilian, Alapin's variation (2.c3)  
De la Riva Aguado, J Arias Boo, G 0-1 ? 1994 C65 Ruy Lopez, Berlin defence  
De la Riva Aguado, J Casas Douton, D 0-1 ? 1994 A43 Old Benoni defence  
De la Riva Aguado, J Crespo Revilla, J 0-1 ? 1994 B26 Sicilian, closed, 6.Be3  
De la Riva Aguado, O Beltran Rueda, S 1-0 ? 1994 C10 French, Paulsen variation  
De la Riva Aguado, O Bravo Barranco, N 1-0 ? 1994 D42 Queen's Gambit Declined, Semi-Tarrasch, 7.Bd3  
De la Riva Aguado, O Garcia Paolicchi, R 1-0 ? 1994 C68 Ruy Lopez, exchange variation  
De la Riva Aguado, O Jose Abril, R 0-1 ? 1994 B22 Sicilian, Alapin's variation (2.c3)  
Duran Albareda, X Noria Silvestre, J 1-0 ? 1994 C25 Vienna game  
Eroles Saez, P Comas Fabrego, L 0-1 ? 1994 E67 King's Indian, fianchetto with ...Nd7  
Estrella Vidiella, J Carrey Abellan, E 1-0 ? 1994 B22 Sicilian, Alapin's variation (2.c3)  
Estrella Vidiella, J Fluvia Frigola, J 1-0 ? 1994 B22 Sicilian, Alapin's variation (2.c3)  
Estrella Vidiella, J Garrido Fernandez, D ½-½ ? 1994 B22 Sicilian, Alapin's variation (2.c3)  
Farre Liarte, F Guerrero Sanmarti, R 0-1 ? 1994 E83 King's Indian, Saemisch, 6...Nc6  
Fernandez Diaz Mascort, M Belles Bulta, J 1-0 ? 1994 A32 English, symmetrical variation  
Fernandez Martin, L Martin Garcia, C 0-1 ? 1994 D02 Queen's pawn game  
Fernandez Menendez, E Carol Querol, S ½-½ ? 1994 D02 Queen's pawn game  
Fernandez Menendez, E Joanpera Morales, A 0-1 ? 1994 E18 Queen's Indian, old main line, 7.Nc3  
Fernandez Muixi, F Bofill Mas, A 0-1 ? 1994 A04 Reti opening  
Ferrer Duran, M Alsina Franco, S 1-0 ? 1994 C30 King's gambit  
Ferrer Duran, M Mojica Martinez, J 1-0 ? 1994 A41 Queen's Pawn  
Fibla Reverter, J Rafols Albet, J 0-1 ? 1994 C42 Petrov's defence  
Fluvia Frigola, J Baron Isanta, J 0-1 ? 1994 B45 Sicilian, Taimanov variation  
Fluvia Frigola, J Garcia Paolicchi, R 1-0 ? 1994 C82 Ruy Lopez, open, 9.c3  
Fluvia Poyatos, J Fernandez Diaz Mascort, M 0-1 ? 1994 B03 Alekhine's defence  
Fluvia Poyatos, J Moreno Ruiz, J 0-1 ? 1994 C02 French, advance variation  
Fravesset, D Grau Brumos, I 0-1 ? 1994 E01 Catalan, closed  
Gabarro Sole, R Baron Isanta, J 0-1 ? 1994 B23 Sicilian, closed  
Gabarro Sole, R Granados Gomez, M 0-1 ? 1994 B28 Sicilian, O'Kelly variation  
Garcia Garcia, M Mateu Palau, E 1-0 ? 1994 D02 Queen's pawn game  
Garcia Paolicchi, R Comas Andreu, J 1-0 ? 1994 E09 Catalan, closed, main line  
Garcia Paolicchi, R Cuadras Avellana, J 0-1 ? 1994 B12 Caro-Kann defence  
Garreta Martinez, A Fraga Marti, A ½-½ ? 1994 A26 English, closed system  
Garreta Martinez, A Picatoste Verdejo, S 1-0 ? 1994 A17 English opening  
Garrido Fernandez, D Gil Gonzales, J 0-1 ? 1994 B04 Alekhine's defence, modern variation  
Garrido Fernandez, D Mateu Palau, X ½-½ ? 1994 B40 Sicilian defence  
Garrido Fernandez, D Sole Fabregat, X 0-1 ? 1994 C25 Vienna game  
Garriga Sole, P Delgado Vallejo, F 1-0 ? 1994 B41 Sicilian, Kan variation  
Garriga Sole, P Pujol Sans, M 0-1 ? 1994 B74 Sicilian, dragon, classical, 9.Nb3  
Garriga Sole, P Vazquez Moreno, J 0-1 ? 1994 B25 Sicilian, closed  
Gil Gonzales, J Heredia Tarrats, A 1-0 ? 1994 C40 King's knight opening  
Gil Gonzales, J Maroto Borras, J ½-½ ? 1994 E18 Queen's Indian, old main line, 7.Nc3  
Gil Gonzales, J Moreno Ruiz, J 0-1 ? 1994 D51 Queen's Gambit Declined, 4.Bg5 Nbd7  
Gil Gonzales, J Pomes Marcet, J 0-1 ? 1994 D10 Queen's Gambit Declined Slav defence  
Girbes Pech, R Olle Gonzalez, J 1-0 ? 1994 B22 Sicilian, Alapin's variation (2.c3)  
Gironella Perello, L Gardela Batlle, J 0-1 ? 1994 B87 Sicilian, Sozin with ...a6 and ...b5  
Glimbrant, T Beltran Rueda, S ½-½ ? 1994 C67 Ruy Lopez, Berlin defence, open variation  
Glimbrant, T Martin Allende, J 1-0 ? 1994 B63 Sicilian, Richter-Rauzer, Rauzer attack  
Glimbrant, T Paredes Prat, J 1-0 ? 1994 B29 Sicilian, Nimzovich-Rubinstein variation  
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